[ENC091] Disminuye el Valle del Ruhr

  ****** The Ruhr Valley, which developed less from historically grown cities than from huge industrial settlements, was especially hard hit by processes of deindustrialization after World War II. Beginning in the mid-1950s, employment in the mining industry fell drastically; many mines closed, and in some cities of the Ruhr Valley unemployment reached 20 percent. … Read more [ENC091] Disminuye el Valle del Ruhr

[ENC090] Shrinking Liverpool-Manchester

****** Manchester and Liverpool lie in the North-West of England, barely thirty-five miles apart. In the early nineteenth century, they epitomised the beginning of the industrial age; Manchester is justifiably known as the first industrial city in the world. Although it was between these two municipalities that Great Britain’s first passenger railway ran, the cities … Read more [ENC090] Shrinking Liverpool-Manchester

[ENC60] Detroit Shrinking City

****** Situated in the northern Mid-West of the USA, Detroit became the centre of American car production at the beginning of the twentieth century. The “Big Three” ? Chrysler, Ford and General Motors ? created the ultimate “Motor City”. It was here that the first street was surfaced with concrete; here that Davison Freeway, the … Read more [ENC60] Detroit Shrinking City